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Different Variation Of Travertine

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Travertine terraces at Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone National Park, in 2016

The word ‘travertine’ is derived from the Italian travertino, itself a derivation of the Latin tiburtinus ‘of Tibur’. Its namesake is also the origin of Tivoli, a district near Rome. Travertine is one of the most frequently used stones in modern architecture. It is commonly used for façades, wall cladding, and flooring.

Travertine is a form of limestone deposited by mineral springs, especially hot springs. Travertine often has a fibrous or concentric appearance and exists in white, tan, cream-colored, and even rusty varieties. It is formed by a process of rapid precipitation of calcium carbonate, often at the mouth of a hot spring or in a limestone cave. In the latter, it can form stalactites, stalagmites, and other speleothems. It is frequently used in Italy and elsewhere as a building material.

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Travertine is a terrestrial sedimentary rock, formed by the precipitation of carbonate minerals from solution in ground and surface waters, and geothermally heated hot-springs. Similar (but softer and extremely porous) deposits formed from ambient-temperature water are known as tufa.

Modern travertine is formed from geothermally heated supersaturated alkaline waters, with raised pCO2 (see partial pressure). On emergence, waters degas CO2 due to the lower atmospheric pCO2, resulting in an increase in pH. Since carbonate solubility decreases with increased pH, precipitation is induced. Precipitation may be enhanced by factors leading to a reduction in pCO2, for example increased air-water interactions at waterfalls may be important, as may photosynthesis. Precipitation may also be enhanced by evaporation in some springs.

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Both calcite and aragonite are found in hot spring travertines; aragonite is preferentially precipitated when temperatures are hot, while calcite dominates when temperatures are cooler. When pure and fine, travertine is white, but often it is brown to yellow due to impurities.

In Italy, well-known travertine quarries exist in Tivoli and Guidonia Montecelio, where the most important quarries since Ancient Roman times can be found. The Guidonia quarry has major historic value, as it was one of the quarries where Gian Lorenzo Bernini selected material from which to build the famous Colonnade of St. Peter’s Square in Rome (colonnato di Piazza S. Pietro) in 1656-1667. Michaelangelo also chose travertine as the material for the external ribs of the dome of St Peter’s Basilica. Travertine derives its name from the former town, known as Tibur in ancient Roman times. The ancient name for the stone was lapis tiburtinus, meaning tibur stone, which was gradually corrupted to travertino (travertine). Detailed studies of the Tivoli and Guidonia travertine deposits revealed diurnal and annual rhythmic banding and laminae, which have potential use in geochronology.

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USES OF TRAVERTINE

Travertine is often used as a building material. The Romans mined deposits of travertine for building temples, aqueducts, monuments, bath complexes, and amphitheaters such as the Colosseum, the largest building in the world constructed mostly of travertine. The Shroud of Turin, when examined by Joseph Kohlbeck from the Hercules Aerospace Company in Utah and Richard Levi-Setti of the Enrico Fermi Institute, was found to contain particles of travertine aragonite limestone.

Travertine regained popularity as a building material in the Middle Ages. The central German town of Bad Langensalza has an extant medieval old town built almost entirely of local travertine.

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Travertine is one of several natural stones that are used for paving patios and garden paths. It is sometimes known as travertine limestone or travertine marble; these are the same stone, although travertine is classified properly as a type of limestone, not marble. The stone is characterised by pitted holes and troughs in its surface. Although these troughs occur naturally, they suggest signs of considerable wear and tear over time. It can also be polished to a smooth, shiny finish, and comes in a variety of colors from grey to coral-red. Travertine is most commonly available in tile sizes for floor installations.

  • Crystal Geyser, Utah, United States -orange travertine
  • Orange Mound Spring, Yellowstone
  • Travertine-mound Bridgeport, California
  • Soda Butte, Yellowstone, a dormant travertine formation
  • Travertine terraces in Pamukkale, Turkey
  • Travertine terraces in Mammoth Hot Springs, Yellowstone.

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Cascades of natural lakes formed behind travertine dams can be seen in Pamukkale, Turkey, which is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Other places with such cascades include Huanglong in Sichuan Province of China (another UNESCO World Heritage Site), the Mammoth Hot Springs in the US, Egerszalók in Hungary, Mahallat, Abbass Abad, Atash Kooh, and Badab-e Surt in Iran, Band-i-Amir in Afghanistan, Lagunas de Ruidera, Spain, Hierve el Agua, Oaxaca, Mexico and Semuc Champey, Guatemala.

In Central Europe’s last post-glacial palaeoclimatic optimum (Atlantic Period, 8000-5000 BC), huge deposits of tufa formed from karst springs.[citation needed] Important geotopes are found at the Swabian Alb, mainly in valleys at the foremost northwest ridge of the cuesta; in many valleys of the eroded periphery of the karstic Franconian Jura; at the northern Alpine foothills; and the northern Karst Alps. On a smaller scale, these karst processes are still working. Travertine has been an important building material since the Middle Ages.

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Travertine has formed sixteen huge, natural dams in a valley in Croatia known as Plitvice Lakes National Park. Clinging to moss and rocks in the water, the travertine has built up over several millennia to form waterfalls up to 70 m (230 ft) in height.

In the U.S., the most well-known place for travertine formation is Yellowstone National Park, where the geothermal areas are rich in travertine deposits. Wyoming also has travertines in Hot Springs State Park in Thermopolis.[16] Oklahoma has two parks dedicated to this natural wonder. Turner Falls, the tallest waterfall in Oklahoma, is a 77 feet (23 m) cascade of spring water flowing over a travertine cave. Honey Creek feeds this waterfall and creates miles of travertine shelves both up and downstream. Many small waterfalls upstream in the dense woods repeat the travertine-formation effect. The city of Davis now owns thousands of acres of this land and has made it a tourist attraction. Another travertine resource is in Sulphur, Oklahoma, 10 miles (16 km) east of Turner Falls. Travertine Creek flows through a spring-water nature preserve within the boundaries of the Chickasaw National Recreation Area.

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In Texas, the city of Austin and its surrounding “Hill Country” to the south is built on limestone. The area has many travertine formations, such as those found at Gorman Falls within Colorado Bend State Park, the nature preserve known as Hamilton Pool, the West Cave Preserve, and Krause Springs in Spicewood.

Hanging Lake in Glenwood Canyon in Colorado has travertine deposits and aqua blue water. Rifle Falls State Park in Colorado features a triple waterfall over a travertine dam.

In Arizona, on the south side of the Grand Canyon there is the Havasupai Reservation. Flowing through it is Havasu Creek, which has extensive travertine deposits. Three major waterfalls, Navajo Falls, Havasu Falls, and Mooney Falls, are all located downstream from the town of Supai. There are numerous smaller cataracts formed by travertine dams. These features are located about 2 miles (3.2 km) from Supai Village (on the floor of the canyon), and are accessible by foot or horseback.

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Bhandari marble group is the oldest and largest manufacturer, supplier and exporter of marble, granite, Italian marble, imported marble , Italian marble, Indian Marble, Statuario marble, Onyx marble, sandstone, limestone, travertine, slate and tiles with best quality.

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About the Author Hi, I am D.C. Bhandari, chairman of Bhandari Marble Group living in India, Rajasthan, Kishangarh. I love seeing the new and creative ways people use our Marble, Granite, and Natural Stone. Our customers are so creative. My favorite design style preppy traditional mix with modern especially pieces that can be found at a vintage or antique stone. I like to invent travel, search, experiment with natural stone products. For more posts visit our website.

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